Light: electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 400 radiation. Transmutation: nuclear change from one element to another. at a maximum. Parabolic mirror: mirror the shape of a paraboloid of revolution structure. Lumen: unit of luminous flux. Photon: quantum of electromagnetic waves; particle aspect of Luminance intensity: measure of light emitted by source in candelas; Longitudinal waves: wave in which direction of disturbance is on the container. its speed in a material. X ray: high- energy photons; high- frequency, short-wavelength of time. object. Beat : slow oscillation in amplitude of a complex wave Charged : object that has an unbalance of positive and negative Inelastic collision: collision in which some of the kinetic energy Luminous object: object that emits light, as opposed to one that exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Traveling wave: moving, periodic disturbance in a medium or field. Fuse: metal safety device in an electric circuit that melts to Frame of reference: coordinate system used to define motion. Closed, isolated system: collection of objects such that neither Electrical charge pump: device, often a battery or generator, induction. Velocity: ratio of change in position to time interval over which Usually used in electrical measurement. Intrinsic semiconductor: semiconductor in which conduction is Lepton: particle that interacts with other particles only by Electron diffraction: effects on electrons due to wave-like interference material to decay. of hydrogen atom. Octave: interval between two frequencies with a ratio of two Hole: absence of an electron in a semiconductor. across it. beta particles; type of lepton. Crystal lattice: structure of solid consisting of regular arrangment than input voltage. waves throughout space. distance to resistance distance. variable. Gas: state of matter that expands to fill container. Concave mirror: converging mirror, one with center of curvature temperature. Angle of reflection: angle between direction of motion of waves Mechanical advantage: ratio of resistance force to effort force to one. e.g. Translucent: material transmitting light without but distorting Calorimeter: device that isolates objects to measure temperature Electrical field: property of space around a charged object that Antenna: device used to receive or transmit electromagnetic waves. quantized: a quantity that cannot be divided into smaller increments Illuminated object: object on which light falls. Thermal equilibrium: state between two or more bodies where temperatures Nuclear transmutation: change of one nucleus into another as the same as the direction of travel of wave. Reference level: location at which potential energy is chosen Hypotenuse: side opposite the right angle in a triangle. reflects light. Rest energy: energy due to mass of object; E= mc^ 2. Ferromagnetic materials: materials in which large internal magnetic stronger and electroweak forces into one force. change takes place. and a line perpendicular to surface the waves are striking. Initial velocity: velocity of object at time t=0. Nuclear fission: reaction in which large nucleus splits into Refractive index: ratio of speed of light in vacuum to that in Nuclear reactor: device in which nuclear fusion is used to generate Impulse: product of force and time interval over which it acts. Hookes law: deformation of an object is proportional to force Second law of thermodynamics: heat flow only from region of high by electrons. between two points. Spherical aberration: inability of spherical mirror to focus Solid: state of matter with fixed volume and shape. Dependent variable: variable that responds to change in manipulated in magnetic field; used to find direction of magnetic field caused by current focal length. Huygens wavelets: model of spreading of waves in which each Primary light colors: red, green, or blue light. Weightlessness: object in freefall, on which only the gravitational Viscous fluid: fluid that creates force that opposes motion of Interference of waves: displacements of two or more waves, producing working between two constant temperatures. Normal: perpendicular to plane of interest. Self- inductance: induced EMF produced in coil by changing current. Constant acceleration: acceleration that does not change in time. all parallel rays to a single point. Series circuit: circuit in which electrical current flows through tangent: the ratio of the opposite side and the adjacent side. that increase potential of electrical charge. Diverging lens: lens that causes light rays to spread apart or Extrinsic semiconductor: semiconductor in which conduction is Vector resolution: process of finding the effective value of Secondary light colors: yellow, cyan, or magenta light. Mechanical wave: wave consisting of periodic motion of matter; Alpha particle: positively- charged particles consisting of two Precision: degree of exactness in a measurement. Semiconductor: material in which electrical conduction is smaller Electric potential energy: energy of a charged body in an electrical Magnetic field: space around a magnet throughout which magnetic Angular momentum: quantity of rotational motion. charges can flow. Kinetic-molecular energy: description of matter as being made Watt: unit of power, one joule per second. tiny test charge to that change. remove objects unbalanced charge. Gravitational field: distortion of space due to the presence Kilogram: SI unit of mass. Effective current: DC current that would produce the same heating Symmetry: property that is now charged when operation or reference Piezoelectricity: electric potential produced by deforming material. electrons. by the gravitational force. electrical energy. Object: source of diverging light rays; either luminous or illuminated. Dissonance: two or more sounds that, when together, sound unpleasant. Hyperbola: mathematical curve that describes an inverse relationship beta decay. Meson: medium mass subatomic particle consisting of combination Periodic motion: motion that repeats itself at regular intervals First harmonic: in music, the fundamental frequency. Galvanometer: device used to measure very small currents. Insulator: material through which the flow of electrical charge Weak boson: particle that carries or transmits the weak interaction Keplers laws: three laws of motion of bodies attracted together Primary coil: transformer coil that, when connected to voltage its path. are converted into energy. Cosine: the ratio of the adjacent side to the hypotenuse. low temperatures. coil, thus the amount of EMP induced in a secondary coil by the varying is equal to vector sum of forces. energy of random motion of particles making up object. the same heating effects. First law of thermodynamics: change in internal or thermal energy Conventional current: motion of positive electrical current. mass of a substance from liquid to gaseous state at the boiling point. a nucleus into individual nucleons. Kelvin temperature scale: scale with 0 K= absolute zero and 273.16 effects. magnetic flux produced in one coil and that which passes through a second Candela: unit of luminous intensity. Conduction band: energies of charge carries in a solid such that or insulator may not have. Scientific notation: numbers expressed in form M * 10 ^ by radiation. forever, for which there exists a minimum, quantum increment. units. Electrostatics: study of properties and results of electric charges is based( i.e. Linear relationship: relationship between two variables, x and ability to ionize matter. of both longitudinal and transverse waves. Activity: number of decays per second of a radioactive substance. Dispersion of light: variation with wavelength of speed of light Antineutrino: subatomic particle with no charge or mass emitted in Energy levels: amounts of energy an electron in an atom may have.