Light:  electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 400 radiation. Transmutation:  nuclear change from one element to another. at a maximum. Parabolic mirror:  mirror the shape of a paraboloid  of revolution structure. Lumen:  unit of luminous flux. Photon:  quantum of electromagnetic waves; particle aspect of Luminance intensity:  measure of light emitted by source in candelas; Longitudinal waves:  wave in which direction of disturbance is on the container. its speed in a material. X ray:  high- energy photons; high- frequency, short-wavelength of time. object. Beat : slow oscillation in amplitude of a complex wave Charged :  object that has an unbalance of positive and negative Inelastic collision:  collision in which some of the kinetic energy Luminous object:  object that emits light, as opposed to one that exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Traveling wave:  moving, periodic disturbance in a medium or field. Fuse:  metal safety device in an electric circuit that melts to Frame of reference: coordinate system used to define motion. Closed, isolated system:  collection of objects such that neither Electrical charge pump:  device, often a battery or generator, induction. Velocity:  ratio of change in position to time interval over which Usually used in electrical measurement. Intrinsic semiconductor:  semiconductor in which conduction is Lepton:  particle that interacts with other particles only by Electron diffraction:  effects on electrons due to wave-like interference material to decay. of hydrogen atom. Octave:  interval between two frequencies with a ratio of two Hole:  absence of an electron in a semiconductor. across it. beta particles; type of lepton. Crystal lattice:  structure of solid consisting of regular arrangment than input voltage. waves throughout space. distance to resistance distance. variable. Gas:  state of matter that expands to fill container. Concave mirror:  converging mirror, one with center of curvature temperature. Angle of reflection:  angle between direction of motion of waves Mechanical advantage:  ratio of resistance force to effort force to one. e.g. Translucent:  material transmitting light without but distorting Calorimeter:  device that isolates objects to measure temperature Electrical field:  property of space around a charged object that Antenna:  device used to receive or transmit electromagnetic waves. quantized:  a quantity that cannot be divided into smaller increments Illuminated object:  object on which light falls. Thermal equilibrium:  state between two or more bodies where temperatures Nuclear transmutation:  change of one nucleus into another as the same as the direction of travel of wave. Reference level:  location at which potential energy is chosen Hypotenuse:  side opposite the right angle in a triangle. reflects light. Rest energy:  energy due to mass of object; E= mc^  2. Ferromagnetic materials:  materials in which large internal magnetic stronger and electroweak forces into one force. change takes place. and a line perpendicular to surface the waves are striking. Initial velocity:  velocity of object at time t=0. Nuclear fission:  reaction in which large nucleus splits into Refractive index:  ratio of speed of light in vacuum to that in Nuclear reactor:  device in which nuclear fusion is used to generate Impulse:  product of force and time interval over which it acts. Hooke’s law:  deformation of an object is proportional to force Second law of thermodynamics:  heat flow only from region of high by electrons. between two points. Spherical aberration:  inability of spherical mirror to focus Solid:  state of matter with fixed volume and shape. Dependent variable:  variable that responds to change in manipulated in magnetic field; used to find direction of magnetic field caused by current focal length. Huygens’ wavelets:  model of spreading of waves in which each Primary light colors:  red, green, or blue light. Weightlessness:  object in freefall, on which only the gravitational Viscous fluid:  fluid that creates force that opposes motion of Interference of waves:  displacements of two or more waves, producing working between two constant temperatures. Normal:  perpendicular to plane of interest. Self- inductance:  induced EMF produced in coil by changing current. Constant acceleration:  acceleration that does not change in time. all parallel rays to a single point. Series circuit:  circuit in which electrical current flows through tangent:  the ratio of the opposite side and the adjacent side. that increase potential of electrical charge. Diverging lens:  lens that causes light rays to spread apart or Extrinsic semiconductor:  semiconductor in which conduction is Vector resolution:  process of finding the effective value of Secondary light colors:  yellow, cyan, or magenta light. Mechanical wave:  wave consisting of periodic motion of matter; Alpha particle:  positively- charged particles consisting of two Precision:  degree of exactness in a measurement. Semiconductor:  material in which electrical conduction is smaller Electric potential energy:  energy of a charged body in an electrical Magnetic field:  space around a magnet throughout which magnetic Angular momentum:  quantity of rotational motion. charges can flow. Kinetic-molecular energy:  description of matter as being made Watt:  unit of power, one joule per second. tiny test charge to that change. remove object’s unbalanced charge. Gravitational field:  distortion of space due to the presence Kilogram:  SI unit of mass. Effective current:  DC current that would produce the same heating Symmetry:  property that is now charged when operation or reference Piezoelectricity:  electric potential produced by deforming material. electrons. by the gravitational force. electrical energy. Object:  source of diverging light rays; either luminous or illuminated. Dissonance:  two or more sounds that, when together, sound unpleasant. Hyperbola:  mathematical curve that describes an inverse relationship beta decay. Meson:  medium mass subatomic particle consisting of combination Periodic motion:  motion that repeats itself at regular intervals First harmonic:  in music, the fundamental frequency. Galvanometer:  device used to measure very small currents. Insulator:  material through which the flow of electrical charge Weak boson:  particle that carries or transmits the weak interaction Kepler’s laws:  three laws of motion of bodies attracted together Primary coil:  transformer coil that, when connected to voltage its path. are converted into energy. Cosine:  the ratio of the adjacent side to the hypotenuse. low temperatures. coil, thus the amount of EMP induced in a secondary coil by the varying is equal to vector sum of forces. energy of random motion of particles making up object. the same heating effects. First law of thermodynamics:  change in internal or thermal energy Conventional current:  motion of positive electrical current. mass of a substance from liquid to gaseous state at the boiling point. a nucleus into individual nucleons. Kelvin temperature scale:  scale with 0 K= absolute zero and 273.16 effects. magnetic flux produced in one coil and that which passes through a second Candela:  unit of luminous intensity. Conduction band:  energies of charge carries in a solid such that or insulator may not have. Scientific notation:  numbers expressed in form  M * 10 ^ by radiation. forever, for which there exists a minimum, quantum increment. units. Electrostatics:  study of properties and results of electric charges is based( i.e. Linear relationship:  relationship between two variables, x and ability to ionize matter. of both longitudinal and transverse waves. Activity:  number of decays per second of a radioactive substance. Dispersion of light:  variation with wavelength of speed of light Antineutrino: subatomic particle with no charge or mass emitted in Energy levels:  amounts of energy an electron in an atom may have.