Modern institutions plant their roots in the period of barbarism, into which their germs were transmitted from the previous period of savagery. In the undisturbed possession of a great, continent, of common descent, and with homogeneous institutions, they illustrated, when discovered, each of these conditions, and especially those of the Lower and of the Middle Status of barbarism, more elaborately and completely than any other portion of mankind. This specialization of ethnical periods renders it possible to treat a particular society according to its condition of relative advancement, and to make it a subject of independent study and discussion. Some tribes and families have been left in geographical isolation to work out the problems of progress by original mental effort; and have, consequently, retained their arts and institutions pure and homogeneous; while those of other tribes and nations have been adulterated through external influence. Fruits, nuts, roots, living in groves, caves, in trees. The commencement of village life, with some degree of control over subsistence, wooden vessels and utensils, finger weaving with filaments of bark, basket making, and the bow and arrow make their appearance before the art of pottery. Thus Adair, speaking of the Gulf Tribes, remarks that “they make earthen pots of very different sizes, so as to contain, from two to ten gallons, large pitchers to carry water, bowls, dishes, platters, basins, and a prodigious number of other vessels of such antiquated forms as would be tedious to describe, and impossible to name. It will be sufficient if the principal tribes of mankind can be classified, according to the degree of their relative progress, into conditions which can be recognized as distinct. The argument when extended tends to establish the unity of origin of mankind. It may be remarked finally that the experience of mankind has run in nearly uniform channels; that human necessities in similar conditions have been substantially the same; and that the operations of the mental principle have been uniform in virtue of the specific identity of the brain of all the races of mankind. In anthropology, Lewis Henry Morgan (1818–1881) is considered a “classical cultural evolutionist,” believing that cultures evolved from simple to complex forms; except, instead of focusing on religion like Edward Tylor, Morgan focused on explaining how marriage and family systems led to the development of modern sociopolitical organization. The remote ancestors of the Aryan nations presumptively passed through an experience similar to that of existing barbarous and savage tribes. Another advantage of fixing definite ethnical periods is the direction of special investigation to those tribes and nations which afford the best exemplification of each status, with the view of making each both standard and illustrative. Malayan. Differences in the culture of the same period in the Eastern and Western hemispheres undoubtedly existed in consequence of the unequal endowments of the continents; but the condition of society in the corresponding status must have been, in the main, substantially similar. " Whether the pottery of the aborigines was hardened by fire or cured by the simple process of drying, has been made a question. It is difficult, if not impossible; to find such tests of progress to mark the commencement of these several periods as will be found absolute in their application, and without exceptions upon all the continents. The first vessels of pottery among the Aborigines of the United States seem to have been made in baskets of rushes or willows used as moulds which were burned off after the vessel hardened.- Jones’s “Antiquities of the Southern Indians,” p. 461. The ancient, Britons, although familiar with the use of iron, fairly belong in this connection. Such, through prolonged ages, after the gens appeared, was the substantially universal organization of ancient society; and it remained among the Greeks and Romans after civilization supervened. Horde. Mankind were then living in their original restricted habitat and subsisting upon fruits and nuts. [] The Rev. The invention or practice of the art of pottery, all things considered, is probably the most effective and conclusive test that, can he selected to fix a boundary line, necessarily arbitrary, between savagery and barbarism. Among tribes still existing, it will leave in the middle Status of savagery, for example, the Australians and the greater part of the Polynesians when discovered. As we re-ascend along the several lines of progress to- ward the primitive ages of mankind, and eliminate one after the other, in the order in which they appeared, inventions and discoveries on the one hand, and institutions on the other, we are enabled to perceive that the former stand to each other in progressive, and the latter in unfolding relations. In studying the condition of tribes and nations in these several ethnical periods we are dealing substantially, with the ancient history and condition of our own remote ancestors. Transcribed: for www.marxist.org by Ibne Hasan, February 2004; First published: in 1877, by MacMillan & Company, London. Systems of Consanguinity & Affinity. The facts indicate the gradual formation and subsequent development of certain ideas, passions, and aspirations. Sixth. Lewis Henry Morgan's Scheme for Social Evolution in Ancient Society. Arts of Subsistence. The period of savagery, of the early part of which very little is known, may be divided, provisionally, into three sub-periods. Lewis Henry Morgan (21 novembre 1818 17 décembre 1881) est un anthropologue américain. Gonneville who visited the south-east coast of South America in 1503, that he found “their household utensils of wood even their boiling pots, but plastered with a kind of clay, a good finger thick, which prevented the fire from burning them.” lb. 1. 1814, p. 503. An attempt will be made in the following pages to bring forward additional evidence of the rudeness of the early condition of mankind, of the gradual evolution of their mental and moral powers through experience, and of their protracted struggle with opposing obstacles while winning their way to civilization It will be drawn in part, from the great sequence of inventions and discoveries which stretches along the entire pathway of human progress; but chiefly from domestic institutions, which express the growth of certain ideas and passions.