What is the point of life from the perspective of philosophers and scientists? Literature is used to criticize the society. After reading. The nature and the function of literature must be correlative. For a fully referenced version of this article please visit the IAFOR Keynotes Series. Indeed, conflict begins with the refusal to listen. Although a majority favoured a republic in the period leading up to the vote, the Yes case was defeated because it advocated an appointed rather than elected President. There is perhaps no more striking demonstration of the power of colonized people to transform the discourses designed to oppress them than the culture which developed in the Caribbean. Nevertheless, by speaking of a different world, art and literature summon forth the hope for a better world. And on the Eighth Day (1992), 182 x 145 cm. How about getting full access immediately? After they were shortlisted for the prestigious Musée de l’Elysée art prize in Switzerland, the major sponsor, Lacoste, requested that the works be removed from the competition for being “too pro-Palestinian”. In his inaugural lecture in Tübingen in 1961 entitled “Can Hope be Disappointed?” Ernst Bloch’s answer was that even a well-founded hope can be disappointed: otherwise it would not be hope. Art and literature have a particular facility for projecting into the future. ( Log Out /  This may not be its goal or its purpose—it may have nothing to do with the subject of the creative work—but it functions this way because it affirms that another world is possible. The ultimate function of literature, and its ultimate justification, is to be sublime, and to have on its readers the effect of ecstasy or transport that sublimity has. But while art and literature will not win wars, they can imagine the future. 1) The referendum held in 2001 on whether Australia should become a republic led to a robust and acrimonious debate in Australian political life. The nation state reduced to a building has simply become the ‘Nation Estate’—a single block of forced migrants. Conflict comes in various forms but it is always about power: a struggle for power or a struggle between the powerful and the powerless. While utopias exist in the future, utopianism, anticipatory consciousness, is heavily invested in the present. Or as Mahmoud Darwish puts it, “Time is a river / blurred by the tears we gaze through.”. Literature in the sense of a set of works of assured and unalterable value does not exist. We cultivate hope. From 1986 until his death in 1996, Onus made sixteen “spiritual pilgrimages” to Arnhem Land. But while the creative work shows the possibility of a different world, it might not be hopeful or optimistic. So past, present and future are conjoined in the creative work in a radical transformation of the reality of slave exile. In the postcolonial context the most powerful means of overcoming the stalemate of resistance rhetoric was the transformation of the genres and discourses of the colonial powers in order to conceive a liberated future and to speak to the widest-possible audience. He asserted that the aim of the writer is, not to teach, but to please, and he distinguished between literature which is art and literature which is didactic. Heimat is the luminous possibility of the present, and in this respect it is far from static, but a dynamic horizon of everyday living. Literature also provides ‘escape’ from the grim realities of life, and many people read to escape boredom. Read About: “The Eyes of Darkness” Download Right Now! The ways in which what we say and believe connects with the power structure and power relations of the society we live in. Bill Ashcroft gave this Keynote Address on April 4, 2014 at The Fourth Asian Conference on Literature & Librarianship (LibrAsia2014) in Osaka, Japan. GREETINGS They are endlessly re-produced, endlessly remade with different political consequences and effects (Bennett 1979, 136). refers to those qualities in a work of literature which instantaneously create in the reader a sense of being carried to new heights of passionate experience; sublimity is the greatest of all literary virtues, the one which makes a work, whatever its minor defects, truly impressive. In such transformative conceptions of utopian hope, what Ernst Bloch calls the In-Front-Of-Us is always a possibility emerging from the past, not as nostalgia but as renewal (1986, 4, 158). How Urban Life is Depicted in “Jazz” by Toni Morrison? H... SHERIA 17 ZA SOKA | THE 17 RULES OF FOOTBALL, HOW TO ANSWER QUESTIONS ON POETRY | QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS. This operates as an iconic point of connection between past, present and future. This is Palestinian artist Larissa Sansour’s photo project called Nation Estate, first introduced as another version of Fritz Kraus’s postcard, which also becomes the key to future hope. In Marxist thinking the power of ideology is its ability to convince the oppressed that the interests of the powerful are the interests of all. Well, mostly because they clearly distinguish between good and evil, which helps children to understand what is good and what is bad from early age. ‘Release literature’ is that in which the dominant motive of the writer is simply the assuagement of starved needs, the release of pent-up forces in the personality. (Ibid, 16). It can only be daring and must point to possibilities that will in part depend on chance for their fulfilment. The higher type of literature helps the reader to escape from trivial reality into significant reality. Email: The following are some of the most important functions of literature in the society.